What is Ulysses' solution to the problems of old age?  

Ulysses's solution to the problems of old age is to behave like a young man and set sail in search of adventure.

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The problem of old age for Ulysses is that he has set aside his desire for adventure in favor of a life of routine and dull governance. He may be old in years, but he is young at heart, feeling he has much still left to offer the world. He...

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The problem of old age for Ulysses is that he has set aside his desire for adventure in favor of a life of routine and dull governance. He may be old in years, but he is young at heart, feeling he has much still left to offer the world. He doesn't want to sit at home bored, his gifts unused. As he puts it,
How dull it is to pause, to make an end,
To rust unburnish'd, not to shine in use!
His solution is to leave his kingdom in the hands of his son, Telemachus, while he sails off in search of new adventure. He trusts Telemachus to do a fine job as the king, "centred" as he is in "common duties." Ulysses realizes that Telemachus is content at home. The son does not share his father's wanderlust.
Ulysses realizes, too, that as long as he is alive, there may be a task left for him to do, that "Some work of noble note, may yet be done."
At the same time, Ulysses is realistic about his limitations and knows he cannot perform the kind of physical feats that characterized his younger days. He muses, however, that "Tho' much is taken, much abides." In other words, gray hair and a weaker body do not mean he is entirely finished.
He ends with the idea that although he does not know what is ahead—he may simply be sailing off to death—he is not about to give up on himself. Instead, he intends
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.
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In Tennyson's "Ulysses," Ulysses may be growing older, but he's not quite ready to settle down into the routines of an old man. For someone such as himself, a man who has sailed across the known world, encountering strange creatures and having exciting adventures, it is difficult to imagine no longer leading an active life. As the aging hero admits, he cannot rest from travel.

There's only one solution he sees: more travels, more adventures, more sailing across the seas. This is Ulysses's solution—if indeed it is a solution—to the problems of old age. Instead of staying at home on Ithaca meting out “Unequal laws unto a savage race,” which to an adventurous man such as himself is no kind of life at all, he proposes to set sail once more.

At the same time, Ulysses acknowledges that he is well past his youth, that he no longer has the strength that, in his younger days, “Moved heaven and earth.” Nevertheless, for a man with such an insatiable taste for adventure, what little strength he has left will be used to venture out into strange, fantastic new worlds that brim with possibility. Even for Ulysses, old age cannot be avoided, but its effects can, to some extent, be postponed.

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In Ulysses's case, the principal problems of old age appear to be boredom and querulousness. At the beginning of the poem, he applies negative descriptions to everything around him in Ithaca. The island is covered with "barren crags" and his people are "a savage race." Presumably, these are circumstances which have not changed much since he was a young man, but they irritate him now.

It is clear that Ulysses misses adventure and, at the end of the poem, his solution to the problems of old age is to behave like a young man and go off in search of adventure. His quest this time is genuinely new. Before, he had a specific reason to travel to Troy, and refusing Agamemnon's request for help in the war against Troy might well have had negative consequences. This time, he does not know where he is going, and the only reason for his voyage is to seek adventure.

This quest for uncertainty and danger is Ulysses's solution to the problem of growing old, but it is also a more general solution to the lack of an aim or mission in life. According to Tennyson's classical sources, Ulysses was reluctant to go to Troy and frustrated by the length of time it took him to get home, but these experiences seem to have changed his character permanently, making adventure necessary to him.

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Tennyson's "Ulysses" is a meditation on old age. We meet an aged Ulysses bitterly reflecting on the glory of his legendary youth and contrasting it with the apparently dull state of his advanced years. Rather than fighting epic battles and exploring distant realms, for instance, Ulysses finds himself wasting away on the shores of Ithaca, tending to the "boring" needs of his family and subjects. The poem is, above all else, an evocation of yearning for the glory days. 

Ulysses' solution is to abandon his family and his kingdom and set out in search of further adventures. According to the aged king, "Some work of noble note, may yet be done,/ Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods" (52-3), and in making this claim, Ulysses suggests that he's heading off in search of a chance to once again illustrate his heroism. In leaving home in search of adventure, Ulysses assumes he'll solve the problems of old age and reclaim his dignity. Interestingly enough, rather the opposite occurs. Like a former high school quarterback clinging to his memories, Ulysses is blind to the limitations that come with old age and, instead of aging gracefully, he pathetically attempts to reclaim his youth. Thus, the poem has a rather melancholy tone, and it's hard to avoid viewing Ulysses' efforts with pity. 

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