Mexican Revolution

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What is the timeline of the Mexican Revolution about?

The timeline of the Mexican Revolution begins with the overthrow of President Diaz in 1910 and ends with the election of President Obregón in 1920. The intervening ten years are characterized by chaos, political rivalry, and violent uprisings.

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The Mexican Revolution began in 1910 after years of widespread dissatisfaction with President Porfirio Diaz, an elitist leader who concentrated power amongst his wealthy companions. When opposition leader Francisco Madero decided to run against Diaz in 1910, the President ordered him arrested and declared himself the leader of a fraudulent election. The first official battle of the Revolution occurred at the Battle of Ciudad Juarez, beginning on April 7th of 1911 and ending on May 10th, in which rebel forces successfully attacked Federal troops, overthrew Diaz, and installed Madero as President.

However, the Mexican people soon soured on Madero due to his lackadaisical approach towards implementing reform. A rebel faction led by Felix Diaz, nephew of former President Porfirio, attacked Federal troops led by Victoriano Huerta. On February 18th, 1913, the rival leaders signed the Pact of the Embassy, in which they agreed to overthrow Madero and replace him with Huerta as President.

Huerta's brief rule was characterized by inebriation and tyranny; two political rivals, Pancho Villa and Venustiano Carranza, led rebel forces against him. On June 15, 1914, Huerta resigned as President, and on October 15, 1915, the United States officially recognized Carranza as his replacement. Villa, who had attempted to claim the Presidency over Carranza, retaliated against the United States by killing 18 U.S. citizens in Columbus, New Mexico on March 9th, 1916.

Carranza's government adopted a new Constitution on February 5, 1917, one which imbued the President with dictatorial power but also guaranteed worker's rights and curbed the influence of the Catholic church. Carranza was able to suppress rebellion until June 1, 1919, when former political ally Álvaro Obregón announced a campaign to replace him as President. Carranza's former supporters coalesced around Obregón; on May 20, 1920, the President was murdered while attempting to flee the capital. On November 30, 1920, Obregón was sworn in as President, officially ending the bloody and chaotic ten-year Revolution.

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