What is the theme of "Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost?

The theme of "Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost is the power of both hatred and desire to destroy.

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In this nine-line poem, Frost's speaker states his opinion that the world will end because of human emotion, not natural disaster. The two emotions that are in contention to destroy the earth are desire (which could also be understood as greed) and hate.

Frost's speaker puts his money on desire, which he likens to a fire, as what will bring on the earth's demise, saying:

I hold with those who favor fire.
However, his speaker does not discount hate, which he aligns with ice, stating:
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
There is a Biblical quality to these two destructive vices. What comes to mind first is the Biblical book of James in the New Testament, in which James asks the Christians at the beginning of chapter 4:
What causes fights and quarrels among you? Don’t they come from your desires that battle within you? You desire but do not have, so you kill. You covet but you cannot get what you want, so you quarrel and fight.
Hate is also condemned throughout the New Testament as a destructive force, so much so that we are told to love our enemies and do good to those who hate us.
Frost's speaker puts the safety and well-being of the earth in human hands, saying we are responsible for preserving it. To do so, we need to control our more destructive emotions. The speaker shows that he has an intimate knowledge of the dangers of both hate and desire, implying that these are feelings that reside in every human heart, much as we might wish to deny them in ourselves.
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One of the main strengths of the poem is its ambiguity, which is reflected in its suggestive anticlimax. Frost expertly sets us up to expect a firm answer to the question: how will the world end, by the power of fire or ice? But there's no neat resolution here nor should there be. The elemental forces of fire and ice simply cannot be fully comprehended or contained by mere human speculation. Look at how their human analogues, desire and hate are so incredibly all-consuming and destructive. If we can't control our own emotions how do we expect to predict how the primal forces of nature will behave billions of years in the future?

Frost seems to suggest that the question is all rather academic and shouldn't concern us for a moment longer. We have wide experience of intense emotions and the human relationships they taint and destroy. Perhaps it would be better for us if we concentrated on our emotional lives and their consequences instead of engaging in idle speculation on the end of days.

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In this poem, Frost points out that humans will be the agents of our own destruction, one way or another.  He compares "desire" to "fire" and "hate" to "ice." Both desire and hate are represented by physical forces that could lead to our extinction.

We might imagine desire to be something like greed, perhaps for natural resources—oil, fresh water, natural gas, and so on—since nations conflict time and again over resources such as these.  Perhaps he chooses fire as representative of desire because of the wars we fight with each other when we want things the other has.  

We might imagine hate to be based on race, religion, ethnicity, or any other kind of personal differences that might seem significant enough for us to harm or abandon one another over them. Perhaps Frost chooses ice to represent this feeling or force because hate can lead one to turn their back on someone, freezing them out, so to speak, allowing them to suffer and die. The speaker does decide that he believes it will be "fire" or our desire that does us in. However, he admits, via a wry understatement, that our hatred for one another is significant, and so it could easily end us as well.

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The theme of Robert Frost's poem is the destuctive potential of hatred and desire.

In his poem, Frost explores with amazingly eloquent brevity two forces which have the potential to bring destruction to the world.  The first of these two is desire, which Frost likens in heat and intensity to fire.  The second of the two is hatred, which he likens to ice. 

In the poem, Frost examines the question of which of these two elements will ultimately destroy the world.  Although he notes that there are avid supporters of both possiblities, the poet himself believes that, in the end, it will be fire, or desire, which will do the job.  He closes the poem with an acknowledgement also that, although he did not choose it as being the likely cause of the earth's demise, hatred, or ice, has an equal potential to bring about final destruction.

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