What type of poem is "To His Coy Mistress"?
There are several ways to classify Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress.” First, it is a metaphysical poem. Literary scholars regularly link Marvell to a group of seventeenth-century poets known as the metaphysical poets, whose themes tended to revolve around religion, love, and morality. In “To His Coy Mistress”, love and morality are key concerns. The speaker encourages his beloved to not be coy and to embrace their love because, after all, their time on earth is temporary.
“To His Coy Mistress” is also a lyric poem. Lyric poems are generally short poems that convey intimate emotions. Marvell’s poem is a good example of a lyric poem, given its relative brevity and its expression of passionate personal feelings.
From a thematic perspective, "To His Coy Mistress" is a carpe diem poem. Carpe diem poems follow some version of the argument that because life is short and time is fleeting, one ought to take advantage of the pleasures and joys of life before it is too late. In the case of Marvell's poem, the speaker uses this carpe diem conceit in the context of an amorous appeal to his beloved, whose coyness is antithetical to his own sense of urgency.
Finally, to classify the poem from a formal perspective, "To His Coy Mistress" is a forty-six line poem composed in iambic tetrameter, with a couplet rhyme scheme. This means that each line is composed of four iambs, an iamb being a metrical foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Each successive pair of lines form a rhyme, as seen in the opening two lines:
Had we but world enough and time,
This coyness, lady, were no crime.
The poem is divided into three sections of uneven length, demarcated by indentations. These sections can be thought of as stanzas, but they are not separated by the break that typically divides stanzas. Overall, these formal features give the poem a musical, humorous, discursive tone.