What is the significance of the scar in Lord of the Flies?

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The boys find themselves surrounded by natural beauty on the island:

This was filled with a blue flower ... and hung down the vent and spilled lavishly among the canopy of the forest. The air was thick with butterflies, lifting, fluttering, settling ... clambering among the pink rocks, with the sea on either side, and the crystal heights of air, they had known by some instinct that the sea lay on every side.

This world exists as a paradise until the boys' arrival: and with them comes destruction. They deplete the natural resources, set fire to the beauty of the island, make brutal sport out of murdering the animals, and then resort to murdering each other.

Near this same description of the island in chapter 1, Ralph turns to the boys and proclaims: "This belongs to us." With this, he must claim the "scar" they create even from the beginning:

Beyond falls and cliffs there was a gash visible in the trees; there were the splintered trunks and then the drag, leaving only a fringe of palm between the scar and the sea.

The scar is an area which has been devastated by the plane's crash—the wreckage ripping through trees and natural beauty to destroy the paradise in that spot.

The scar then symbolizes the power of mankind to devastate the delicate and beautiful balances in nature. Sometimes, this is done through technological progress, as seen in the plane. But sometimes this is seen through mankind's quest to exert power over nature itself, as seen in the murder of the pig. Either way, nature suffers because of mankind's presence.

While Ralph's initial claims to the island project mankind's quest to rule over nature, he is also claiming the scar, and therefore the devastation, that mankind creates.

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The scare refers to the area on the island where the plane crash decimated the natural landscape. The name of the scar is both indicative of its physical appearance, as the upturned ground and smoldered foliage resembles a wound on otherwise tropical paradise, and the symbolic meaning of mankind being a scar on the tranquility of the island by bringing about violence and hatred.

The scar is also symbolic of the psychic wound that the boys have suffered by being left alone with no authority at such an early age. While at first, they feel as though they have stumbled on to paradise, it is clear that they require an established order and that the freedom for which they are not prepared has traumatized them.

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The scar represents the damage that humankind regularly does to the natural world. The plane crash is one such example, and the boys's occupation of the island is another. When the boys first crash-land on the island, they think it's some kind of demi-paradise. And they're absolutely right; but that's only because neither they, nor any other human beings, have been living there. Mother Nature was doing just fine before these entitled young hooligans showed up and proceeded to trash the place.

The physical scar left behind by the plane crash will take a long time to heal, just like the psychological scars inflicted on the boys by their descent into outright savagery. But in both cases, the recovery process, however long it takes, will start the very moment the surviving boys step off the island for what one hopes will be the last time.

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The scar is actually the place where the plane ripped across the island as it was crashing. Symbolically, it represents the injuries suffered by the island as a result of human habitation. When the boys arrive, the island is an idyllic tropical paradise. The wreak havoc on the environment by eating all the fruit, using the land as a public toilet, and mercilessly killing pigs and other small animals they want to use in their games. By the time they are ready to leave, the island is on fire and almost totally destroyed. The rather small scar of the airplane has turned into a giant, gaping wound that the boys have inflicted what was a paradise. This reinforces Golding's theme that man has an evil nature that must be controlled or man will destroy both himself and his environment.

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