What is the relationship of Judaism and Christianity to Islam?  

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These three faiths are known as the "Abrahamic" religions. This is because they all recognize Abraham, the great patriarch of the Bible, as the first prophet of God. Their theological lineage, in other words, extends back to the same place.

Each religion is monotheistic, and Muslims recognize almost every one...

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These three faiths are known as the "Abrahamic" religions. This is because they all recognize Abraham, the great patriarch of the Bible, as the first prophet of God. Their theological lineage, in other words, extends back to the same place.

Each religion is monotheistic, and Muslims recognize almost every one of the prophets in the Old Testament—and, for that matter, Jesus himself—as prophets of God. In terms of theology, the most important aspect of the relationship of Christianity and Judaism to Islam is that neither faith recognizes Muhammad as a prophet. Indeed, by Muhammad's time, Christianity was already well-established, both in the sense that many of its core doctrines had been worked out and that it was widespread throughout the Levant and the Roman Empire more generally. The teachings of Muhammad, seen by Muslims as the greatest of the prophets and the recipient of the complete and final revelations from God, are not recognized in the New Testament.

Additionally, Christians believe that acceptance of Jesus Christ is essential to salvation, a conviction not shared by the other Abrahamic faiths. Judaism also does not accept that Muhammad was a prophet (and, of course, does not see Jesus as the son of God). In addition to their specific belief systems, each of these faiths was profoundly influenced not just by the Abrahamic tradition, but by Greek philosophers like Plato and especially Aristotle. Theologians and philosophers of all three religions made attempts to reconcile their faiths with these writings and others. Moreover, adherents of three faiths lived side by side (as they still do) throughout the world, meaning that they have influenced each other in ways well-documented by historians. In short, the histories of these three faiths have always been intertwined, in ways that have often had tragic consequences.

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