"Values," in this context, refer to the things that people think are important. Generally speaking, people will view societal institutions and societal concerns in this light. For example, people who have what are sometimes called "traditional" or "conservative" values will want the society they live in to embody those values. Opponents of marriage equality, for example, often base their concerns about this issue on their values. Other people's value systems may stress social and economic justice, and these people are likely to support government structures and societal institutions that are geared toward promoting these ends. So values are very important to how people perceive social institutions, and if many people in a society hold similar values, they will register as societal concerns.
This can work the opposite way as well. Societal institutions can affect and shape societal concerns by promoting certain values. Government, for example, can promote values like patriotism through the use of propaganda. Families, of course, play a major role in shaping values. Economic forces, especially in a market economy, can shape values, as in the consumer culture that emerged in the wake of World War II in the United States. Churches, or religion in general, are societal institutions that play important roles in shaping social concerns through their influence on value systems.