What is the moral lesson from Julius Caesar?

The moral lesson from Julius Caesar is that the end does not justify the means. Brutus thought he would safeguard Rome by participating in the plot to assassinate Caesar, but instead, he brought on a civil war. Evil does not lead to good, only to more evil.

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One moral lesson found in Julius Caesar is the danger of putting too much trust in the wrong people.

Julius Caesar believes that he can trust his friend Brutus. When Caesar returns from defeating the sons of Pompey in battle, he has Brutus by his side. Brutus claims to love Caesar, which is part of his own internal struggle, and the men share a close relationship. Yet Caesar allows this intimate friendship to blind him to the changes in his trusted friend. Brutus has become broody and conflicted, and even when Caesar's wife begs him not to go to the Senate on the fateful day of his death, Caesar instead listens to Decius, one of the conspirators, and is led away to his death. He is seemingly shocked to find Brutus among his murderers, undoubtedly because he realizes the full scope of his misplaced trust.

Brutus himself is victim of trusting the wrong people, as well. Cassius is a master of manipulating Brutus's feelings, and Brutus allows his position to be swayed many times through flattery and fear tactics. While it is true that Brutus appears conflicted early in the play, Cassius uses those feelings for his own purposes, convincing Brutus that Caesar is a threat and then blaming Brutus's own lack of will for Caesar's successes. Brutus allows himself to be swept up in the plans of murder without carefully evaluating the claims of the conspirators; Antony brings this to his attention—as well as to the attention of the citizens who have gathered to listen following the death of Caesar—after the murder. The portrait of the self-serving Caesar whom Brutus has grown to fear simply doesn't fit the totality of factual evidence.

Both Caesar and Brutus place themselves on a path to their own deaths because they place too much trust in the wrong people. They both allow their own decisions to be swayed by those who have selfish ambitions of their own.

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Brutus, a good and brave man, is lured into a conspiracy to kill his close friend, Julius Caesar. Cassius, a leader of the conspiracy, wants to kill Caesar because he is jealous of the way his former equal has broken away from the rest of them and now seems to be on the cusp on becoming an emperor. Cassius doesn't want to have to bow down and take orders from his former buddy. He knows, however, that to get the public to accept an assassination, the conspirators need a person of Brutus's stature on their side. Cassius manipulates Brutus into joining in on the assassination by appealing to his nobler instincts and convincing him he is doing it for the good of Rome.

Brutus does sincerely believe the assassination, though a terrible, immoral act, will bring peace and stability to Rome. He loves Rome with all his heart and wants it to prosper. However—and this is great tragedy of the play—Brutus falls into the fantasy of thinking "just one bad act" will cause every problem to be solved. He knows what the assassination is wrong, but he believes the end justifies the means. In fact, the "one bad act" does not solve anything, but leads to more and more crisis, ironically throwing Rome into the civil war Brutus wanted with all his heart to avoid.

Consistently, Shakespeare shows that you can't get to good through evil. Evil and destruction breed more evil and destruction, becoming forces impossible to control.

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The lesson from this play is that arrogance can have deadly results.

Julius Caesar died because he was arrogant.  Arrogance is about more than having a high opinion of yourself.  It means that you put your judgement above everyone else’s.

Cassius and Brutus killed Caesar because he was arrogant, and because he was ambitious.  Caesar’s arrogance led to the ambition.  He did not care what anyone thought of him.  Caesar was Caesar.  For example, he ignored all of the warnings that his life was in danger.  Caesar knew better.

You can tell Caesar was arrogant by his reaction to the conspirators’ suit over Metellus Cimber’s brother.  Caesar should have realized that the men were up to something.  They surrounded him, pleading with him, and he thought nothing of it.  His reaction is supremely egotistical. 

I could be well moved, if I were as you:
If I could pray to move, prayers would move me:
But I am constant as the northern star,
Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality
There is no fellow in the firmament. (Act 3, Scene 1)

The conspirators are able to kill Caesar, but then they are in a bind.  They are the second example of the lesson that arrogance is deadly.  Brutus and Cassius were just as arrogant as Caesar.  They did not want Caesar to be dictator, so they assumed that they knew better than anyone else.  What gave them the right to kill the leader of Rome?

Brutus and Cassius, and the other conspirators, paid for their arrogance.  Brutus believed that the movement needed to avoid killing Mark Antony because he wanted to keep the assassination clean.  He did not want to be considered a butcher.  Brutus put principle over common sense. 

We shall be call'd purgers, not murderers.
And for Mark Antony, think not of him;
For he can do no more than Caesar's arm
When Caesar's head is off. (Act 2, Scene 1)

Not killing Antony was a mistake.  Brutus assumed that Antony would not be any trouble.  He even agreed to let him speak at the funeral.  Antony was ambitious and aggressive too though.  He desired revenge for Caesar’s death.

Antony was able to swing the Roman people over to his side with his excellent funeral speech.  He left Brutus in the dust.  Brutus and Cassius both eventually ended up dead, because again Brutus acted arrogantly during the battles against Antony and Octavius’s armies.  Antony would pay for his arrogance later.

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