What is the difference between the British Parliament and the US Congress?

Differences between the British Parliament and the US Congress include that Congress is bicameral while Parliament is not and that Congress is largely separate from the executive function of the US government while Parliament plays a major role in the executive branch.

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In the British Parliament, the party that governs is, by convention, the one that can command majority support in the House of Commons. Once that majority is secured, the government is entitled to propose whatever legislation it wishes. In the United Kingdom, Parliament is sovereign and there exists no other institution with the power to strike down legislation in the same way as the US Supreme Court. The British constitution is unwritten, and so there is no mechanism by which judicial review may be used to void Acts of Parliament. English courts can certainly rule government actions unlawful, but it cannot strike down legislation.

Both houses of Congress are wholly elected. In the United Kingdom, however, this only applies to the lower house, the House of Commons. The unelected House of Lords—the upper chamber in the UK Parliament—can certainly delay legislation and inflict defeats on the government of the day. However, if needs be, the government can always enforce the Parliament...

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