In *Weapons of Math Destruction*, Cathy O'Neil identifies opacity as one of the characteristics of a WMD, a mathematical model that has damaging effects on people's lives. These mathematical models may be opaque in several different ways. Those it affects may not understand how it works. Those who operate it may be similarly ignorant. Finally, the people it affects may not even be aware that the WMD is operating at all.

An example of this is the way we are sorted into tribes based on our use of social...

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