What is one difference between transformational generative grammar and systemic functional grammar? Support that difference with the analysis of data based on both TG and SFG.

Systemic functional grammar is more focused on the communicative aims of language. It's a look at why humans choose the words they do and how those selected words fulfill their communicative function. Conversely, transformational grammar is more focused on specific structures. It examines how particular sentences relate to one another.

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Transformational grammar deals more with the sentence itself and the foundations of that sentence. It wants to show how sentences can relate to one another. It aims to analyze the ways in which sentences can transect with one another.

Transformational grammar contains terms like “underlying structure,” “surface structure,” and “deep...

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Transformational grammar deals more with the sentence itself and the foundations of that sentence. It wants to show how sentences can relate to one another. It aims to analyze the ways in which sentences can transect with one another.

Transformational grammar contains terms like “underlying structure,” “surface structure,” and “deep structure.” Look at these two sentences:

Billy ate an apple.

The apple was eaten by Billy.

Transformational grammar would identify the underlying structure of those sentences. They’re both united by Billy and the act of eating the apple. Their relative simplicity might lead transformational grammar to point out their surface suture. A deep structure might look like this:

I know Billy. He ate the apple.

As the name “deep structure” suggests, the above set of sentences take us a little deeper into the world of Billy and why he might have consumed the apple.

As for systemic functional grammar, you could claim that SFG focuses less on individual sentences and more on the structure of language as a whole. It appears to see language as a big but limited structure. The structure provides people with many words or options. From those words or options, people craft sentences to express themselves. SFG is more focused on why people select the combination of words that they do and less focused on how those combinations of words (i.e., sentences) relate to one another.

Again, SFG seems more focused on the human relationship to language and its communicative potential. Meanwhile, transformational grammar is more occupied with closely examining the relationships between specific sentences.

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