What is Marxism?

Marxism, to put it rather simply, is a type of economic system proposed by Karl Marx in which there are no classes. The government would control all resources and means of production to, in theory, ensure equality. It's worth noting there are many variations of "communism," and all such types of governments to date have yet to truthfully/successfully implement it as idealized by Marx.

 

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At its simplest, Marxism is the opposite of capitalism. In capitalism, everyone tries to get as much for himself as you can. He who has the most toys wins. In communism, everyting is owned collectively, and each person works for and benefits from the good of the group.
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Marxism is a particular type of social and economic system in which the means of production are not owned by the wealthy but by the producers themselves.  It is the idea that people own their labor and input labor and get out the equal amount of product, value and resources.  That way, people are not paid less than they produce so that others can profit off of their labor instead of off of their own.  It eliminates the notion of profit for profits sake and postulates that if everyone puts in labor and the products, value, resources that result are then redistributed back to the laborers in equal value to their imputs then everyone owns their own labor, effort and time rather than others being able to "exploit" laborers by essentially skimming the excess off the top which continues to propagate the status quo.  Laborers can only work at one place at a time because time is one dimensional but owners can own multiple businesses at once and, therefore earn more than laborers for less physical effort. 

Marxism is an idealistic economic philosophy in that it assumes that all people rich and poor want to work and will work to get what they need.  It does not allow for corruption, organized crime, moochers, scam artists and the like.  It has at its basis a very pro-human notion that assumes human nature is to be honest and earnest at all times.  And, that by equalizing every person, no individual will possess the power that is said to corrupt. 

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I don't think there can be anything simple about Marxism.  I think that an underlying element of the philosophy is how the focus of economics underscores everything in human consciousness.  Human identity, conflict, social arrangement, and political orders are all predicated upon the impact and role of economics.  I would think that this becomes where Marxism places its largest amount of focus.  The discussion of who owns these various modes of economic production and material acquisition is of critical importance to Marxism and forms an essential part of the philosophy.  In its analysis of what is, Marxism hopes to pose an equally viable reality of what can be.

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Marxism is a theory of economics and of history.

It says that all of history consists of conflict between various classes.

At all times, societies are divided up between people who own the "means of production" and those who do not.  The means of production are the things needed to make products -- so this means factories and machines and things like that.  The people who do not own the means of production will always struggle against the people who do own them.

Eventually, Marxism argues, the workers will win the class struggle permanently.

Marxism also argues that capitalism is evil because the workers produce all the value of goods through their labor while the owners get most of the money.

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