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Colonization, also known as colonialism, is the occupation and control of a weaker people by a more powerful nation. Colonization is closely tied to imperialism. Colonialism is not practiced today because it is widely viewed as an evil and immoral policy. After the colonization of the Americas by the Spanish, ninety percent of the Native America population died. In the late nineteenth-century Congo, millions were killed by King Leopold II's harsh rule. Japan's brutal colonization of Korea (1910–1945) is still remembered by Koreans. Although traditional colonialism no longer exists, neocolonialism is still practiced by stronger nations.

Colonization began in ancient times. The Phoenicians established colonies in the Mediterranean. Alexander the Great established Greek colonies in central Asia. The Romans were the leading colonizers of ancient times, and their empire lasted for centuries.

The Age of Exploration, carried out by European nations, led to the establishment of colonial empires throughout the globe. Its first wave was led by Portugal and Spain. A second wave saw England, France, and Holland establish colonies. Sweden tried to colonize part of North America, but it failed.

Most of the people of the Americas revolted against colonization in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.

In the late nineteenth century, colonization flourished as European nations carved up Africa. Asia was also the victim of European imperialism, and Japan became an imperialist nation, too.

Colonialism ended after World War II (1939–1945). Japan had to give up its colonies after its defeat in WWII. Britain, France, Holland, and Portugal lost their empires.

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