What is an example of a caesura in "The Wanderer"?

An example of a caesura in the Old English poem “The Wanderer” appears in each of its 115 lines. The poem follows the usual Anglo-Saxon poetic structure of long lines split into two half-lines separated by a pause or caesura.

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The Anglo-Saxon thanes gather around their lord in the mead hall, enjoying their drinks, the bright fire in the center of the hall, the gifts their lord has just passed around, and the camaraderie they share. Now the evening's entertainment is about to begin. A poet, called the scop, rises and stands before the lord. He lifts his head, takes a breath, and recites the first line of “The Wanderer,” a well-known poem: “Oft him ānhaga.” Then he pauses for a moment before continuing with the second half of the line: “āre gebīdeþ.” Translated, the line means “Often for himself the lone-dweller waits for favor.”

The poet's pause is called a caesura, and it is standard in Anglo-Saxon (or Old English) poetry. Anglo-Saxon poetry is made up of alliterative long lines. These lines are split into two half-lines or verses with the caesura or pause in between. Each half-line generally carries two stresses, and alliteration (correspondence of initial sounds) occurs on one or both of the stresses in the first half-line (or a-verse) and only on the first stress of the second half-line (b-verse).

Let's look at a couple lines more from “The Wanderer,” the poem the poet has begun to recite. Line 2 reads, “metodes mildse, / þēah þe hē mōdcearig,” which means “Measurer's mercy, through which he, troubled in spirit.” The caesura is marked here by a slash, and it separates the a-verse from the b-verse. Notice how each verse has two stresses: the first syllable of each word in the a-verse and first two syllables of “mōdcearig” in the b-verse. The alliteration falls on the consonant “m.”

Line three continues, “geond lagulāde / lange scolde,” meaning “over waterway long should.” Again, we see the caesura between the two half-lines. The alliteration falls on the consonant “l,” and the stresses occur on the word “lagulāde” in the a-verse and on the first syllable of each word in the b-verse.

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In addition to the multitude of caesurae mentioned in the other answers, one of the final stanzas of the poem uses the natural pauses created by punctuation to make a series of statements that cause the reader to slow down and focus on the magnitude of what is being said:

All is misery-fraught in the realm of earth,
the work of fortune changes the world under the heavens.
Here wealth is loaned. Here friends are loaned.
Here man is loaned. Here family is loaned—
And this whole foundation of the earth wastes away! (106–110)

The first two lines of the stanza (lines 106–107) use the meter to initiate the pauses, asking the reader to absorb each line in its entirety. Lines 107–108 use periods to shift the pause pattern, adding refrains of "here" and "loaned" to cause the reader to focus specifically on how the relationship of those two concepts causes a "wasting away" of earth. There would be a caesura after each use of "Here," causing the reader to understand the gravity of the claim and feel the weight on themselves and their very moment in time. The caesurae break the metered line into specific, profound claims about the ruin of mankind.

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In a poem, a pause formed by the rhythms of natural speech rather than meter constitutes a caesura.  Caesurae (plural form of caesura) can appear in the middle of a line, but they can come at the beginning or end of a line too.

Several caesurae appear in the following lines,

So I, wandering,
Bereft of my homeland,
Far from my kinsmen,
Oft in wretchedness,
My innermost feelings
Am forced to fetter, 
Over these long years
Since my lord I buried
Deep in the dark earth [...]

There is one caesura after "I" in the first line and another after "wandering."  In fact, each comma marks a caesura.  In the second to last line, there would be a caesura after "Since" and another after "lord;" this sets off "my lord" as the direct object of the predicate "buried."  

In the lines below, a caesura is located both before and after "in youth."

How in youth his lord,
Ever treasure's friend,
Won him to wining.
Dead now all joyfulness!

Another caesura is located after the word "Dead" in the last line of the above. We would naturally pause to emphasize that word and all its implications for joy.

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A caesura is a pause that usually occurs in the middle, or towards the end, of a poetic line. There are two types of caesura: masculine, which is a harder pause and usually occurs after a long or accented syllable in the line, and feminine, which is a softer pause and usually occurs after a non-stressed and short syllable.

There are several examples of caesurae in "The Wanderer." This poem's first caesura occurs in the first few lines: "No man, to whom / I'd clearly speak..." The caesura, a masculine caesura, occurs after the comma before "to whom" and creates a kind of rhythm. 

Another example of a caesura in this poem occurs a few lines later: "So I, wandering..." The caesura, masculine again, occurs after the comma. A caesura often is used to create breath and call the reader's attention to some information in the line, and, in this case, the caesura emphasizes the "I," and the fact that this speaker is wandering. 

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