What is an example from lines 1–126 of Beowulf that contains kennings written as possessives? (ex: "Hell’s captive" refers to Grendel being captured in Beowulf’s arm.)

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The kenning is one of the defining features of Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse poetry. It is a rhetorical device which is essentially a form of metaphor but relies to a certain extent upon social convention and collective understanding. Many kennings, such as "whale-road" to indicate the sea, are found across multiple poems, which tells us that the metaphor was very commonly used, even though it refers to the sea only indirectly. In the same way, "béaggyfan" or "ring-giver" refers to one's lord, the person to whom allegiance is owed, but some understanding of Anglo-Saxon culture is necessary for this...

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A kenning is a compound word that takes the place of a noun. It enhances writing by using compound words that are more descriptive than the original noun. It is a metaphor. An example of a kenning is the compound words "molder of minds" instead of "teacher". There are three types of kennings used in Anglo-Saxon literature:

1. Open - adjective and a noun replaces noun.

2. Hyphenated -  two nouns connected with a hyphen replaces a noun.

3. Prepositional - preposition used to connect two nouns.

4. Possessive - shows possessive using s' or 's.

Beowulf uses kennings extensively. Some examples of  kennings are:

  • whale-road (the sea)
  • mead hall (drinking establishment)
  • middle-earth (the area between heaven and hell)
  • mankind's enemy (Grendel)
  • the living sorrow of Healfdane's son (Hrothgar)