The key critical text on Heart of Darkness from a postcolonial point of view is Chinua Achebe's "An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness." In this essay , Achebe discusses the racism inherent in Conrad's tale, which describes the Congo as a nightmarish place that drives...
The key critical text on Heart of Darkness from a postcolonial point of view is Chinua Achebe's "An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness." In this essay, Achebe discusses the racism inherent in Conrad's tale, which describes the Congo as a nightmarish place that drives the white characters mad and where the native people do not feature as real humans. While the book can be read as a critique of Belgian rule in the Congo, it contains many hallmarks of racist literature seen through postcolonial eyes, such as the white savior complex.
Heart of Darkness is about a man who works for an ivory-trading company and enters the Congo as a visitor; he is appalled by the hatred the colonizers have for the native peoples of the Congo. However, the depiction of the natives as "savage" is inherently racist in itself: African religion is made a mockery of in the idolization of Kurtz by the Congolese.
The story is set in the late nineteenth century, and it is essentially a criticism of the behavior of the Belgian government towards the people of the Congo. The Belgian approach to Africa was especially egregious, with the English Marlow depicted as being horrified by the Belgians' brutality in their search for ivory. However, this approach ignores the fact that Conrad's approach is itself racist: the novel's presentation of Africans is consistently dehumanizing, Achebe argues, and the environment of the Congo is described as being as savage as its inhabitants. Conrad's argument seems to suggest that the Belgians are wrong to treat the Congolese the way they do, but he recommends, instead, paternalism, not independence. Meanwhile, Africa and Africans represent the Other: Marlow traveling down the Congo is an image of the white man traveling into a mythical land. Africa is depicted as if it were an unreal place, something from fairyland. Meanwhile, the people of Africa are described as if they were animals, with one man being dismissed as "a dog wearing trousers."