What is a detailed analysis of Robert Burns's poem "Scots Wha Hae"?

Robert Burns's poem "Scots Wha Hae" is a patriotic call to arms that recalls the 1314 Scottish victory against the English in the Battle of Bannockburn. It uses such literary devices as imagery, metaphor, anaphora, alliteration, and antithesis to create an emotionally stirring articulation of the Scottish desire for freedom.

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Burns's 1793 "Scots Wha Hae" is a patriotic poem that calls the Scottish to bravely embrace liberty from the English.

The poem consists of six stanza of four lines each written in Scottish dialect . The last words in the first three lines of every quatrain rhyme. It is a...

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Burns's 1793 "Scots Wha Hae" is a patriotic poem that calls the Scottish to bravely embrace liberty from the English.

The poem consists of six stanza of four lines each written in Scottish dialect. The last words in the first three lines of every quatrain rhyme. It is a dramatic monologue, in which a famous Scottish hero, Robert Bruce, addresses his troops before the 1314 Battle of Bannockburn, which the Scots won.

In the first stanza, Bruce offers his troops a choice between a "gory bed" or "victorie" against the English. "Gory bed" uses imagery that helps us imagine how bloody the battle is likely to be. "Gory bed" is also a metaphor, likening death to sleeping in a bloody bed.

The second stanza uses antithesis, the juxtaposition of opposites: Bruce presents his soldiers with a choice between freedom or "Chains and Slaverie."

In the third stanza, Bruce asks a series of rhetorical questions—questions that really have only one answer—saying ("Wha" means who):

Wha will be a traitor knave? / Wha will fill a coward's grave? / Wha sae base as be a slave?

The repeated "Wha" at the beginning of each line in stanza three is an example of anaphora, the repetition of the same word or words to start a phrase: anaphora creates a sense of litany.

The fourth and fifth stanza repeat the call to find freedom through following Bruce into battle. Scott uses alliteration, for example in the repeated "f" and "s" sounds in stanza 4, to create an added sense of rhythm.

The sixth stanza is an emotional final call to freedom, ending with:

Let us do or dee [die]

The poem reflects Romanticism's emphasis on emotion, as the poem is meant to stir deep feelings in the reader. It also is Romantic in its nationalistic fervor and siding with the underdog, in this case the oppressed Scots, who had for many years been under the heel of the English.

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