Your question could be broken down into two categories: physical versus chemical properties, and intensive versus extensive properties.
Physical properties of matter have to do with features that can be measured and with the material by itself. Some examples include melting and boiling points, color, density, state of matter at SATP (gas, liquid, solid), odor, conductivity, hardness, etc. Chemical properties have to do with how the substance interacts with other substances. Examples include combustibility or reactivity with acids/bases. Notice that the chemical examples require another substance to be present to interact (or not) with the material you are studying.
Extensive and intensive properties are further sub-categories of physical properties. Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter. Things like hardness, color, odor, and density fit in here. Extensive properties are dependent on the amount of the material. This includes things like mass and volume.