What is the influence of transcendentalism in Whitman's "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer"?

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The speaker of this poem seems to recognize the idea that there is a difference between knowledge, which is possessed by the "learn'd astronomer," and wisdom, which one can really only come to on one's own in nature: a quintessentially transcendentalist idea. The "learn'd astronomer" brings all kinds of knowledge...

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The speaker of this poem seems to recognize the idea that there is a difference between knowledge, which is possessed by the "learn'd astronomer," and wisdom, which one can really only come to on one's own in nature: a quintessentially transcendentalist idea. The "learn'd astronomer" brings all kinds of knowledge and figures in order to impart the facts about the universe, but how much sense does it really make to learn about the stars while sitting inside "the lecture-room"? This method of education makes the speaker feel "tired and sick" because he is not really learning anything, or at least not anything of true value. To do this, the speaker says, he must "ris[e] and glid[e]" outside by himself; he learns more of what has essential truth and value by sitting "in perfect silence" and looking up at the stars. These ideas—that one will learn less in the schoolroom or even the church than one can learn in nature and solitude—are very transcendentalist.

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I think that the speaker of the poem, presumably Whitman, ends up breaking out on his own path rather than that of the "learn'd astronomer" represents a strong presence of Transcendentalism.  The Transcendental idea of forging one's own path away from the conventional notion of the good is a heavy idea in Thoreau and Emerson.  It is also something that Whitman embraces at the end of the poem.  The idea of "formal" and "informal" as seen in emotions is another element that is present.  The classroom instruction is seen as sterile and plastic.  The Transcendental idea of embracing emotions and using an emotional frame of reference with which to appropriate the world is something that is seen in the closing of the poem.  Along these lines, the use of emotions in understanding something as complex as the stars and astronomy is evident when Whitman decides to leave the formal and conforming classroom setting and find his own voice, his own sense of self.  In this, Whitman defines himself as a Transcendental persona in the poem.

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