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Among the major political developments that occurred in the United States during 1869 was the convening of the nation’s first-ever gathering of black laborers; Elizabeth Cady Stanton became the first female to testify before Congress; passage of the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which guaranteed the right to “citizens of the United States” to vote without regard to “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” (in other words, former slaves could now vote); former Civil War general Ulysses S. Grant was inaugurated as the 18th President of the United States; and the National Woman Suffrage Association was established, mainly through the efforts of Stanton and Susan B. Anthony; and, the Radical Republican Constitution was adopted in Texas under pressure from the federal government to conform to Reconstruction dictates being implemented across the South. A major economic development with political ramifications involved Jay Gould and James Fisk’s attempt at cornering the U.S. gold market, which resulted on September 24 of that year with the “Black Friday” panic on Wall Street.
Internationally, on October 11, the Red River Rebellion by French-Indian settlers against the British in what is now called Manitoba, Canada, began; the Suez Canal linking the Mediterranean and Red Seas was completed, radically increasing the geopolitical importance of that part of Egypt; and Vatican I began.
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