The major source of acid rain consists of emissions of sulfur dioxide which reacts quickly and easily with water molecules in the air and then returns to earth in the form of nitric acid. Other contributors can include volcanoes and some other chemical emissions from power plants burning fossil fuels as well as livestock production and other manufacturing. Production of ammonia is also a major contributor to acid rain.
Efforts have been made to limit these emissions through a variety of methods including taller smokestacks, chemical scrubbers, and the use of cleaner burning coal that contains lower amounts of sulfur.
The effects of acid rain depend of course on the acidity of the rain but they can include the destruction of both land and water ecologies by changing the ph balance of either the soil or the water. These changes create problems for both the reproductive cycle in fish and other animals as well as health problems for adult animals and plants.
acid rain has an impact on ecology..the acidification of streams and lakes affects aquatic animals and plants..high acidity results in the killing of fish,reduces their growth and causes reproductive failures...change in pH prevents hatching of fish eggs..green algae and many forms of beneficial bacteria which are essential to aquatic life are killed as a result of acidity..in addition it corrodes buildings,monuments ,statues and metals(as taj mahal is getting yellow)..the acid rain poses a serious threat to human health since it contiminates drinking water..plant growth is also seriously affected by acid rain..