What is the importance of Freud and Marx in the Surrealist Movement and how did they influence Surrealism?What are some concepts, for example that were applied and reflected in Surrealism
As surrealism stands for its metophorical-reality constructed through material realty which may become a replica of "unseen" an idea resembling through "seen" materiality that was constructed in a "peculiar" way. As Sigmund Freud's psychoanalyticall method dealts with such as to unravel the "unseen" culted sub-conscious mind that consists of metaphorical images formed;like dreams;through material or empirical experience yet "unknown" and predominantly influencing the conscious mind that eventually what we actually perceive in any personality. Freud's method is like an archaeological investigation upon the artistist's piece of work-here, such as surrealist films in which it tries to bring out carefully the pattern/mental images metaphorically or poetically,which usually called "artistically"constructed with an intention by its authors/film director. This method tries to "reveal" as if bitter medicine through a "sweet" coating in material world. Here, we can take the material nature of piece of art work which in Marxs dialectical sense seen as a conflict or contradiction between "ideas" (surrealistic mental Images) created and its "material" formative construction which carries that mental image through matter to "reveal" the "intended" meaning as synthesis in the minds of audience for its author yet succinctible to arise suspicions because all audience are not that much passive.
Surrealists greatly valued the ideas of Freud. He came up with a method of pyschoanalytic interpretation. He believed by using this method, it would be possible to illuminate the unconcious. Freud once said, “A dream that is not interpreted is like a letter that is not opened,” and Surrealists even went as far to include this idea in thier artwork. Freud's ideas inspired many Surrealists and his ideas went two different ways: Automatists and Veristic. Using Freudian methods of free association, "Surrealists used poetry and prose that drew upon the private world of the mind, traditionally restricted by reason and societal limitations, to produce surprising, unexpected imagery."
Andre Brenton, who is the founder and leader of Surrealism, is known to have used Marx's theories and philosophies in the Second Manifesto of Surrealism. "Any ‘Marxism’ uninterested in the problems raised by surrealism has nothing in common with Marx or Lenin. As Breton wrote ‘The isolation of the poet, the thinker, the artist from the masses, which is mutually harmful, is a result of the tactics of those who feel that they themselves stand to lose from this association."