What are the implications of Stephen Krashen's Monitor model for the classroom?

Expert Answers
M.P. Ossa eNotes educator| Certified Educator

When using the Monitor model for the teaching of L2 in the SLA classroom, one must first consider that there are 5 hypotheses included within the model. Each of the hypothesis shows a different way in which the L2 is used by, both, seasoned and new learners.

The most important implication is that the curriculum and instruction must be contoured to include all five proposed theses. The first tenet of the Monitor model is the "acquisition/learning theory". This theory separates learning from acquisition. Even if learning is a voluntary or enforced process, the fact remains that it is still a conscious effort to receive and retain specific information. Acquisition is the natural process of learning through activities and interaction. What this implies is that the L2 lesson must be interactive, relevant, and as close to real life as possible. We want acquisition, and not learning

The second implication comes from the natural order hypothesis: it states that language, regardless what system it comes from, will be learned either way through a predictably organized neural pattern. Therefore, teachers should not stress nor over-explain language; the student will learn it either way, and the more natural exposure to it, the better. Hence, L2 learning must best be immersed in the target language, or at least as saturated yet less threatening as possible.

The third implication comes from the monitor-language hypothesis. This hypothesis contends that, even when learning language at its rawest, most natural way, L2 students are aware of monitoring the proper usage of it when needed. This being said, teachers should simplify the lesson to its most important components and should not emphasize so much on formal usage of L2. There should be a balanced teaching of every aspect of L2 use, but over-pressing the "formalities" of the language will just stress students out. Again, students are much smarter and resilient than we think as teachers; they will figure it out.

The fourth implication is comes from the input hypothesis; it states that consistent exposure to language is the key to learn it. Even if the teacher cannot verbally use L2 at a 100% at first, there are other ways for exposure through movies, posters, books, diglots, picture books, and of course through the use of the Internet.

The final implication, coming from the affective filter hypothesis. Basically, learning cannot occur when your brain is compromised thinking about outside stressors. Learning cannot occur either when the lesson is just too complicated, or when the student feels like a failure before even getting there. Hence, to lower the affective filter, teachers must offer lessons that are loaded with positive feedback, appropriate criticism, chances of trial and error, and with the least threatening atmosphere possible.