What impact(s) did the Russian Revolution have, both short term and long term?

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There were actually two Russian Revolutions. The first was in 1905-06, and the second began in 1917. These revolts marked the end of Russia's Romanov dynasty. The Romanov line ruled Russia as czars from 1613-1917.

The first revolt followed Russia's defeat in its war against Japan (1904-05). There had been growing discontent and some political violence in Russia before 1905. The shocking loss in the war served as a catalyst that helped transform dissatisfaction into open revolt. There were massacres of peaceful protesters and labor strikes. Non-Russian areas of the vast empire revolted, too. Nicholas II, the ruling czar, hesitated. But the growing unrest compelled him to issue the October Manifesto (1905). This created a Duma (legislature) and a constitution. But many protesters were not satisfied, so the government ruthlessly suppressed them. The reforms did not fix the nation's political weaknesses.

The second—and much larger—revolution was in 1917. Russia suffered huge losses in...

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