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What was the impact of the northern nomad peoples on Chinese society in the late Tang and Song eras?

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The Tang Dynasty fell around 907, when there were incursions from invaders from the north. These invaders took over a great deal of land in the northern and western parts of China, and there was a period of chaos in China. In 960, the Song Dynasty was founded. During the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), the Song defeated the Liao Empire in the northeast with the help of the Jurchens, a northern nomadic tribe with a strong military. The Jurchens then turned against the Song and captured their capital, Kaifeng. The Jurchens made Kaifeng their own capital and established the Jin empire. Only the...

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The Tang dynasty (618-907) was in many ways a continuation or expansion of the previous dynasty, the Sui.  The Chinese rulers in the south began creating lasting relationships with the northern nomads through the intermarriage of ruling families.  The northern nomads began adopting the Chinese language and culture, while the Chinese got horses.  Horses were essential because trade for goods, especially silk, was growing.

During the Tang dynasty the system for obtaining government jobs, the imperial examination system, was formalized.  Although this system seemed to allow for anyone to become part of the scholar-official class through achievement, in reality only families with sufficient wealth to provide education and training were able to pass the examinations.

Taizong, who became ruler by killing his own family, was a mix of Chinese and northern nomad.  And despite a bloody beginning, he was a good ruler. 

During the Song era, a group of northern nomads conquered the capital and moved it to the north.  Despite the takeover, trade and the economy flourished.

The most important influences of the northern nomads included horses, stirrups and trousers, as well as the intermarriage of Chinese and northern nomad aristocrats and the takeover of the capital during the Song era.