Alcohol impedes short-term memory function and can, over a period of time, impede long-term memory function as well. It slows the neuro-cognitive processes associated high order reasoning and judgment. Alcoholol can have a cumulative effect on the way that hormones and neurotransmitters travel throughout the brain and body. The neuochemical processes governing one's subjective sense of balance, time, temperature and volume are particularly vulnerable.
Alcohol consumption contributes to vascular restriction. It can raise blood pressure and heart rate, and can limit the supply of oxygen to the brain. Lack of sufficient oxygenation over a period of several minutes or hours can result in permanent brain damage or death.