What were the immediate and long-term effects and consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis?

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In 1962, Khrushchev responded to the presence of American nuclear weapons in Turkey by secretly installing Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba. The United States promised not to attack the Castro regime in Cuba and withdrew its missiles from Turkey in exchange for the Soviet withdrawal of nuclear weapons from Cuba. Both sides agreed to ban atmospheric nuclear tests in 1963, and they established a direct hotline between the Kremlin and the White House to prevent possible misunderstandings and accidents that could trigger nuclear attack. Kennedy’s efforts to resolve the crisis in a peaceful way made him more popular with the American public.

The Soviet leadership recognized that the United States' nuclear arsenal was much larger than their own and was capable of annihilating the U.S.S.R. in a nuclear conflict. Accordingly, they deposed Khrushchev because he wanted to focus on improving the economy and he limited the development of nuclear weapons, although he occasionally threatened to use...

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