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The ideology that would eventually gain power in Russia after the October Revolution was communism. We can also call this ideology “Marxism-Leninism.” Finally, it is possible to say that it was “Bolshevism” in particular (and not some other strain of communism such as “Menshivism”) that gained power.
Before the October Revolution, Russia had been governed by a provisional government that had come to power after the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II. This provisional government, however, did not have as much support among the people as it might have. It particularly made itself unpopular by continuing to support World War I.
After the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War, the Communists, led by Vladimir Lenin, eventually came to power. They would control the Soviet Union until the 1990s.
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