The upheaval in the 70's was the start of a long period of unrest in Afghanistan that is still in turmoil today. Some people refer to Afghanistan as "Russia's Vietnam". The Soviet Union spent many years occupying Afghanistan leaving and allowing guerrilla forces to take control of the country.
Afghanistan was ruled by King Muhammed Zahir since 1933. However turmoil for reforms in the government of the country had been going on since 1920's. Afghan people also feared Attack by their communist neighbor USSR. Under these condition Muhammad Daoud Khan, took control of the government in 1953 and made himself prime minister. Under Daoud, Afghanistan took no side in the Cold War, and it received aid from the Soviets and the United States. However Daoud had to resign due to some internal problems in 1963. Subsequently some sort of democratic constitution was adopted in 1964. But real democracy failed to develop.
In 1973, Daoud once again led a military revolt and overthrew King Zahir, establishing the Republic of Afghanistan with Daoud as president and prime minister. But in 1978, rival leaders and civilians staged a second revolt in which Daoud was killed. This rival group group, which received much financial and military aid from the Soviet Union, took control of the government and established policies supporting Communism. However People opposed the new government policies, which they believed conflicted with teachings of Islam. This opposition against the new government gained strength rapidly shortly after it came to power. Widespread fighting broke out between government force and rebels, who called themselves Mujaheddin (holy warriors).
The government sought the help of USSR to control the Mujaheddins, and In late 1979 and early 1980, the USSR sent thousands of troops to join the government forces fight against the rebels. The USSR and Afghan government forces bombed many villages, causing major death and destruction. Large numbers of villagers were forced to flee to neighbouring Pakistan, as refugees.