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What hazards do humans face when they are in space? What technologies have been developed in response to these hazards? Have these technologies been adapted for use on Earth? If yes, how so?Thanks!    

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There are obvious problems for humans trying to survive in space, and some that are not as obvious. Obvious issues include those associated with simply having the necessary substances for life--air, water, and food. These do not exist in space and must be transported from Earth. When astronauts live for extended periods on the International Space Station air and water are conserved and recycled; food must be continuously brought from Earth. Wastes are ejected from the ISS.

Health issues that are not as apparent are those associated with extremely low gravity (I'll refer to this as 0g, though it is not exactly that), and the exposure to radiation. Scientists know that extended time in 0g results in loss of bone density and changes to the cardiovascular system. Bones are not working against the usual 1g of Earth; the lack of typical stress leads to loss of mass. The heart and...

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