What have been the effects of these later Amendments
In order to get a better answer, it would be quite helpful if you could specify which amendments are, to you, "later."
Looking at the 19th through the 27th Amendments, you can see a general difference between these amendments and many of the earlier ones, especially those of the Bill of Rights. These later amendments (with the exception of the 21st) have not been about things like civil liberties. Instead, they have tended to address two types of issues:
- The granting of broader political rights. Among these amendments, we have ones giving women and 18-20 year olds the right to vote. We have one giving people in Washington, D.C. the right to vote and one banning poll taxes.
- Technical issues. We have amendments that clarify the succession to the presidency and vice presidency. We have one that adjusts the time of the new president and Congress's inauguration.
These later amendments have, then, tended to work to increase political rights and to fine tune the details of our system of government.