In The Kite Runner, what has changed forever in Afghanistan? In reference to chapters 3, 4, 5, & 6.
The first indication of real, permanent change in Afghanistan is signalled in Chapter 5, when one evening Hassan and Amir hear massive noises of gunfire and other weapons and bombs. Even though Ali, Hassan's father, tries to tell them that they are just "hunting ducks," it is clear that Amir fears what is going on and sees through this fabrication that is meant to calm them. Amir reflects, however, that these sounds of gunfire and explosions had frightened them so badly because they were sounds that had not been heard before, as this following quote reveals:
They were foreign sounds to us then. The generation of Afghan children whose ears would know nothing but the sounds of bombs and gunfire was not yet born. Huddled together in the dining room and waiting for the sun to rise, none of us had any notion that a way of life had ended. Our way of life.
This quote thus demonstrates conclusively that the overthrow of the monarchy in this coup is one act that effectively ends a whole way of life, as peace and prosperity are exchanged with violence upon violence, as then a Communist coup occurs followed by the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. This is of course an incredibly dark period of Afghanistan's history that it is still struggling to extract itself from now in the present.