In 1637 and 1638, a brutal and destructive war, known to posterity as the Pequot War, broke out between New England colonists and Pequot Indians, native people who lived in modern-day Connecticut. This conflict was essentially rooted in Pequot anger at the expansion of Massachusetts Bay colonists into their lands, but it also resulted directly from trade disputes and, as some historians have argued, the fact that Pequots could no longer play Dutch (in New Amsterdam) and English settlers off of each other due to the increasing power of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In any case, the war consisted of a series of mutual raids until a brutal attack carried out by English and Native soldiers on a Pequot village on the Mystic River in 1637. This resulted in the massacre of more than 400 men, women, and children, and permanently weakened the once-powerful Pequot. They suffered final defeat in 1638, and the Pequot people dispersed, leaving the area forever.