What is the greatest threat to port security in the next decade? Cyber systems, more automation in operations, or the continued unrest around the world? Resources would be helpful.

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The rise of automated technology and the advancement of cyber systems is certainly one of the greatest threats to port security in the next decade. In fact, cyber attacks and/or data theft were cited as one of the threats most likely to occur to the maritime industry in the next ten years by the Global Maritime Forum in 2018. Systems that control or monitor shipments, vessel movement, and transactions are all potential targets, and the vulnerability of many of these systems is still unknown. There are many ways these vulnerabilities could be exploited: ship manifests could be altered/tampered with, control or navigation systems could be attacked, and security systems could be by-passed. To adapt and respond to these evolving security threats, the US Coast Guard has developed its own "cyber strategy." This multi-faceted approach seeks to research and identify key ways in which port security is threatened by cyber attacks, how to defend operations, and how to improve port security without decreasing efficiency. However, maintaining port security cannot be accomplished by one organization alone, and it will take a global effort to research and respond to the rapidly evolving cyber technology.

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