What government replaced Kaiser Wilhelm in Germany?

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Kaiser Wilhelm reluctantly capitulated in 1918. German armies had been defeated and communist revolutionaries were a threat inside Germany. The tumultuous situation finally led to the Kaiser's exile in neutral Holland.

The end of the Kaiser's government created an opportunity for communist agitators. The communists had seized Russia after the czar's recent abdication, and they tried to seize power in Germany, too. The German military and other conservative elements of society were determined to keep communism out of Germany.

There was chaos in Germany until Friedrich Ebert (1871–1925), a socialist leader, set up a provisional government. Communists attempted to seize power by force, but they were defeated and their leaders—Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht—were executed in January 1919. Ebert then founded the Weimar Republic.

Although Ebert was a capable and earnest leader, his government faced numerous obstacles, and Weimar Germany's instability eventually led to the rise of Adolph Hitler.

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Wilhelm II of Germany was forced to abdicate as Kaiser in November 1919. Following his abdication, the Weimar Constitution was signed, declaring that the state of monarchy and aristocracy in Germany would be null and void, and all such titles were to be renounced. The signing of this constitution issued in the so-called Weimar Republic, which governed Germany between late 1919 and 1933.

The leaders of the Weimar Republic were those in power in Germany when the Treaty of Versailles was signed. Because of this, the people of Germany distrusted the Republic's commitment to the German people, believing the terms of the treaty to have been unfair and unfavorable. Under the Weimar Republic, Germany also suffered enormous monetary inflation and an unstable economic climate which endured for many years, in part due to the terms enforced by the Treaty of Versailles. As such, the unpopularity of the Weimar Republic left it open to attack from other quarters: communism was popular in Germany during the 1920s, and during this period, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party also grew in prominence.

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