There's a lot going on in Jane Eyre which parallels the tropes of Gothic novels. One of the key features in Jane Eyre which strikes the reader as Gothic is its use of buildings and landscapes almost as characters in their own right—the windswept, Yorkshire landscapes are representative of the Gothic hinterland, the unknown, and the various houses Jane moves between are anchors of their own within this landscape. Outside on her own, Jane isn't safe; but the novel gives the distinct sense that she may not be safe, either, within these grand and drafty houses which are, in their own way, prisons.
The female protagonist, Jane, is far from being a delicate flower, but as a woman in distress, a virgin, she is similar to many Gothic heroines. Gothic literature often deals with preserving the virtue of young women from the abuses wreaked upon them by men, and in this story we see this expressed not only in the way Jane is treated by men in her early life, but also in the figure of the rather frightening Mr Rochester. While he is gentle towards Jane, there is another woman in his life who is literally imprisoned by him: the woman in the attic, Mrs. Rochester. In imprisoning Mrs. Rochester in the attack, Bronte created a trope which is now iconic—the woman locked away, out of sight, because of her supposed madness. The first Mrs. Rochester represents the suppression of female expression by men; Jane is haunted by her cries in a way which turns out not to be supernatural, but is still symbolic. The cries of the first Mrs. Rochester can be interpreted as an expression, not only of an individual's pain, but of female pain as a whole.