On the Beach by Neville Shute would be a great novel to pair with The Road. It is set in a post-apocalyptic Australia during the '60s. The characters know that the end of life is inevitable due to nuclear fallout, and the government even offers suicide pills to ease the suffering.
How about Harlan Ellison's A Boy and His Dog? It's a great story about life in post-apocalyptic Australia with huge doses of dark humor not found in the ultra-serious The Road. Ellison's tale won the 1969 Nebula Award (Best Sci-Fi Novella) and the film version (starring Don Johnson) won a Hugo Award.
Without knowing the parameters of your assignment, I might suggest a comparison to the 19th century novel by Ivan Turgenev called Fathers and Sons ( 1862). The story traces the experience of who has become a nihilist and rejects his father's ways...
(The entire section contains 5 answers and 437 words.)