What god does the narrator pray to here?

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The Nun's Priest's Tale is typical of Chaucer in being filled with literary and mythological allusions. The animals in this anthropomorphic story are evidently living contemporaneously, within the period of Christianity, but are aware, just the same, of pagan history and its applicability to their circumstances.

Due to Chaunticleer's being...

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The Nun's Priest's Tale is typical of Chaucer in being filled with literary and mythological allusions. The animals in this anthropomorphic story are evidently living contemporaneously, within the period of Christianity, but are aware, just the same, of pagan history and its applicability to their circumstances.

Due to Chaunticleer's being such a ladies' man ( or ladies' rooster), the goddess invoked in his favor is Venus, the goddess of love:

O Venus, that art goddesse of pleasaunce,
Sin [since] that thy servant was this Chaunticleer,
And in thy service dide al his poweer,
More for delyt than world to multiplye,
Why woldestow [wouldst thou] suffre him on thy day to dye?

This is no doubt meant to enhance the comical (but serious in message) effect of the story. These are learned animals, to be sure. The aid of other figures and abstract powers is invoked as well:

O destinee, that mayst nat been eschewed!

And:

O Gaufred, dere mayster soverayn,
That when thy worthy king Richard was slayn
With shot, compleynedest his deth so sore,
Why ne hadde I now thy sentence [wisdom] and thy lore,
The Friday for to chide, as diden ye?
(For on a Friday soothly [truly] slayn was he.)

Gaufred is Geoffrey de Vinsaud, a writer and grammarian of Richard I's period. So Chaucer invokes English history as well in likening the attack on Chaunticleer to the death of Richard Cœur de Lion nearly two hundred years earlier.

The reference to Friday obviously has both Christian and pagan implications. Is Chaunticleer a Christ figure? Chaucer seems to emphasize the pagan origin of the names for days of the week: Friday is Venus's Day (vendredi in French) or the equivalent goddess of Germanic mythology, Freyja (from which our English word for the day derives as a cognate in mythology of the Roman goddess of love). The combination of gods, people, and symbols invoked is a sign of Chaucer's wide-ranging knowledge and of a perhaps ecumenical spirit even in the late Middle Ages. It's also an expression of the inherent humor of such an erudite milieu in this anthropomorphic world.

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