Speaking solely from a sociologist's point of view, what is globalization?
To sociologists, globalization has a different meaning than what it has in the minds of economists. Economists focus on companies trading with one another. Sociologists look, instead, at culture and society.
For sociologists, globalization is the process by which the cultures and societies of the world come to be more similar to one another than they previously have been. Globalization can be seen in such things as the world of professional soccer. You now have people in China and Japan and the United States following the teams in the English Premier League quite closely. Globalization can be seen also in more formal things like the United Nations. The UN is an institution that pushes to create similar values (such as human rights) in all countries of the world.
Thus, globalization is the process by which the societies and cultures of the world come to be more alike in ways as important as human rights or as unimportant as supporting soccer teams.