You can find this information on the US Geological survey website, posted as my first link below. When you ask for "geography" of each type of mountain, it may sound like you are asking just for where the mountain itself is located. But the "geography" of the mountain has a more precise meaning. What exact type of mountain is it? In other words, how was this particular mountain formed? Through volcanic activity, continents colliding...? What is it made of? All the mountains you list, I believe, are in the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest.
I highly recommend going to the usgs site, as you can find specific info on each of the mountains you listed. For example, Mt. Baker is listed as a stratovolcano, defined on the site as a "steep-sided, symmetrical cones of large dimension built of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs"
Mount Baker is a Cascadian volcano and it's surpassed by Mount Rainier.
Mount Reinier,which is the most dangerous and seismically active volcano (after Mt. St. Helens), is covered by 36 miles of glaciers which are the biggest inheritance of the Ice Age, found on one single mountain (a "single-peak glacier system").
Mount St. Helens is another Cascadian volcano, which until May 18, 1980, enjoyed a tranquil anonymity, being known and visited only by locals from the surrounding area. It became famous after the devastating volcanic eruption, whose story has travelled around the world, through the media channels.
Mount Adams is one of the largest Cascadian volcano and it is way bigger then any of the surrounding mountains, but way less active than the St. Helens, Rainier, and Hood mountains ,from its neighborhood.
Glacier Peak is one of the most isolated Cascadian volcano from the five major composite volcanoes of the Cascade Range.