The South had some geographic advantages in the Civil War. One of those advantages was that the South knew the land very well since most of the fighting was in the South. The South knew the lay of the land better than the North did. This allowed them to avoid unfavorable areas in which to fight. Since the South was defending their homeland and way of life, this increased their motivation to be successful.
The South also didn’t have to invade the North. One of the South’s goals was to make the North chase the South throughout the South. This would prolong the war and possibly lead northerners to want to stop the fighting. The South knew a long war might lead to increased opposition to the war in the North. This could help to end the war in a way that would be favorable to the South.
The South also controlled a good portion of the Mississippi River as well as the port of New Orleans. This was a vital source of transportation. The North wanted to get control of this river because that would have significant consequences for the South. Transportation would be impacted, and the South would be geographically divided.