What are four systems of social stratification?

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pohnpei397 eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Social stratification occurs when a society has a number of different “layers” of people within it who have different statuses.  In other words, social stratification exists if there are different groups of people who have different levels of such things as power, prestige, and wealth.  All societies have social stratification.  However, different societies base these groupings or strata on different things.  Sociologists generally identify four different bases for social stratification.  These are the different systems of social stratification.

One system of social stratification is slavery.  In this system, there is a basic two-level stratification.  Some people are free while other people are property. 

A second system is a caste system.  In this system, groups are given a set status by society and members of that group have that status follow them throughout their lives.  People do not earn or choose their status.  Instead, it is “ascribed” to them by society and there is nothing they can do to change it.  India’s caste system is the most widely-known example of a society that is stratified by caste.

A third system, one that is not really in use any longer, is an estate system.  This system was widely used in Europe in the Middle Ages and beyond.  It divided people into three estates:  the nobility, the clergy, and the common people.  This was the system of social stratification that helped lead to the French Revolution.

Finally, there is the class system of stratification.  This is, for the most part, what we have today.  People in our society are stratified based on how much material wealth they have.  We tend to give more power and prestige to those who have more money or more of other forms of wealth.

These are the four main ways in which societies can be stratified.

thetall eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Social stratification occurs in all societies or large groups of people. The distinctions are based on individual prestige, power or property relative to other members of the same society. Certain demographics, such as gender, have been used to stratify societies. The main types of social stratification include slavery, caste, estate, and class.

Slavery is, of course, when certain individuals own other people and employ them to perform duties for them. Slavery may occur as a form of debt repayment by the slave, as a form of punishment, or as an effect of war (where the conquered become slaves).

The caste system ascribes a status to certain individuals. The ascribed status is lifelong with no opportunity to change it and children are subject to the same status. The status is acquired through religion, culture, or other social factors.

The class system is based on material possessions and money. The system is more flexible than the caste system because an individual can change their class if they manage to increase their possessions.

The estate system is an older system that was based on land ownership. The society was stratified based on those who owned the land and peasants or serfs. The peasants and serfs were allowed to work on the land to produce their food and benefit the landowner by apportioning some of their produce.