The form of a partnership that allows some of the investors to limit their liability is (the exact name can vary) a limited liability partnership.
In this sort of a partnership, many of the investors are typically protected from liability to some extent. The extent to which each of the investors is liable for debts incurred differs from one jurisdiction to the next, but all jurisdictions offer some limitations on liability.
In many jurisdictions, there is a requirement that at least one of the partners be designated as a general partner. General partners have all of the decision-making power in the firm, but also have unlimited liability. The other partners, often called limited partners, have no decision-making power but do enjoy some limits on their liability.