What are the main points of Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond?

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Diamond’s book is meant to answer a simple question put to him by a politician from Papua New Guinea: given than Europeans and New Guineans are equally smart, why is it that Europeans have so much more stuff? Diamond’s answer avoids the commonplace assertions about culture or race (for instance, that science did not rise in China because Confucianism did not value scientific inquiry) and instead focuses on geography and environment as determining factors.

For Diamond, the rise of technologically sophisticated civilizations in Eurasia can be traced to conditions that made the evolution of agriculture possible—factors such as climate and the availability of native plants that could be domesticated. Agriculture made possible the development of cities, and urbanization in turn affected the genetic make up of the people that lived in the cities—making them more resistant to disease, for...

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