What figure of speech or rhetorical device is exemplified by Caesar’s famous, “Et tu, Brute? –Then fall, Caesar!”

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There are several possible answers to your question. In the first instance, Caesar is asking a rhetorical question of his erstwhile friend when he addresses him by saying, "Et tu, Brute?" Obviously, he does not expect Brutus to answer him or explain himself; on the contrary, Caesar already knows that...

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There are several possible answers to your question. In the first instance, Caesar is asking a rhetorical question of his erstwhile friend when he addresses him by saying, "Et tu, Brute?" Obviously, he does not expect Brutus to answer him or explain himself; on the contrary, Caesar already knows that Brutus has also turned against him.

Another thing that makes this line particularly notable is the fact that Shakespeare chooses to have Caesar say it in Latin. Obviously, these characters would have originally spoken in Latin, but in the context of this play, the use of Latin is an example of aureate diction--the use of a classical language to highlight something as being of particular significance. "Et tu, Brute?" is a very formal phrasing that uses Latin to render the moment more ceremonial and somber than it might otherwise have seemed.

This sense of ceremony is perpetuated in Caesar's use of illeism, namely, his reference to himself in the third person. In saying "then fall, Caesar," he creates the impression that "Caesar" refers to more than simply himself as a man; it also refers to the symbol of Caesar, the would-be king, and his power over Rome.

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Caesar is speaking of himself in the third person in this quotation. To speak of yourself in the third person means to use your own name when referring to yourself, instead of saying "I."

If Caesar were speaking normally here, he would have said "Et tu, Brute?--"then I fall!"

To speak of himself in the third person adds a little more drama to the scene. Caesar is giving in to the idea that he is going to die, that he will cease to be. Now he is just about to become a historical figure, so it seems more fitting than it usually might to refer to himself this way.

Keep in mind also that Caesar is a title rather than a proper name. There were a number of Roman "Caesars." That makes it sound like he's saying something along the lines of, "You have killed your Caesar."

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