- A metaphor is when you compare 2 things without the words "as" or "like", it is rather a direct comparison. (than simile)
eg. The soldier was a lion in the battlefield.
- Personication is simply applying annimate quality to an inanimate object or an animal.
eg. The trees greeted me.
Metaphors are like similes in that two subjects that are not usually linked are linked. Metaphors are different in that, rather than a simple comparison, a metaphor states that the two subjects are the same or equal. The effect of this is to give one object the attributes of the other.
Extend metaphors explore metaphors more deeply. Text two, as well as being an example of personification, is also an extended metaphor. The metaphor is not one line, as with the figure of speech mentioned above, but continues to lines two and three. Having stated that 'the tree is an old man', the composer in text two further explores the ways in which the old man and the tree have similar qualities.
Extended metaphors can be quite long. Text three is an extended metaphor composed by Alfred Lord Tennyson. It compares the leaving of a ship from the Thames (a famous river in London) to life, from birth to death. This is a particularly apt metaphor as ships had to wait until night-time for high tide before they could sail out to sea.