The other educator answer here does a thorough job answering the first part of this question, so I will focus on the second part.
The African response to imperialism differed greatly over time and from place to place. Most African rulers merely wanted European powers to stay out of their business. Some responded directly with force to keep them out. With the exception of Ethiopia, these attempts at resistance all ended very poorly for the Africans. For instance, the Zulu revolt against English rule in South Africa led to many deaths and even further subjugation of the tribe.
Sometimes, African feelings of nationalism were a major motivation behind these resistance movements. In Ethiopia, the Maji Maji Rebellion was motivated by strong notions of nationalism combined with faith in their animist religions. Many of those who participated in the revolt believed that spirits of the natural world would protect them. While they met with immediate success, ultimately the revolt was a bloody...
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