Land pollution is the long term damage, degradation or destruction of the soil and the surface of the earth by the direct or indirect activities of human beings.
Several factors encourage the activities resulting in land pollution. Waste generation is an inevitable end product of several human activities. An unwanted consequence of urbanization is the generation of huge amounts of garbage and industrial waste from factories, offices, homes, schools and hospitals. In spite of the utilization of sophisticated waste processing plants, unrecyclable items still end up in landfills, increasing the degree of land pollution.
An increase in demand for food and shelter to meet the needs of a growing population leads to the generation of more waste. Over-intensive agriculture through the use of agricultural pesticides and fertilizers lead to soil contamination and poisoning.
Mining activities and crude oil extraction for economic gains lead to oil spillage and contamination of arable land by toxic chemicals causing land pollution. Nuclear waste produced by energy generating nuclear plants are buried beneath the earth, but the harmful effects of radioactive material to the soil and other living things above it cannot be entirely eliminated.