What factors led to the fall of the Roman Republic?
Many different factors accounted for the fall of the Roman Republic. The first was external conquest. The governing mechanisms developed for a small republic proved inadequate to cope with governing a large empire. Second, partly as a result of conquest, land became consolidated in a small number of estates owned by the senatorial elite (latifundia), driving small farmers off their lands, and leading to a volatile political situation of demagogues allying with the plebs. Finally, the Republic had degenerated into political factions supported by armed mobs, in a state of almost constant civil strife, and was basically non-functional by the time of the first triumvirate.