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What factors enabled the city-state of Rome to conquer Italy and the Mediterranean world?

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The main reason Rome conquered so much territory was its military. The Romans had a powerful army that was superior to its adversaries.

One reason why its army was so strong was its use of the legion. The legion was a flexible infantry formation which proved its superiority over the old phalanx at Cynoscephalae in 197 BC. In this battle, the Romans defeated Macedonia. Macedonia had been the world's strongest military power under Alexander the Great. However, the phalanx was too inflexible for combat against the wily Romans.

Rome also had outstanding military leaders. Pompey the Great won numerous victories throughout the Mediterranean area. The greatest of all commanders, however, was Caesar. Caesar was loved by his men and was a brilliant battlefield leader.

Another reason for Rome's rise was its victory in its most important conflict: the struggle with Carthage. Carthage, a city-state in North Africa, was Rome's archenemy. The two countries fought three wars. Carthage was led by the...

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